Spellings and Their Sounds

This is a handy list of the sounds for each spelling.  

List of Consonant Sounds for Each Spelling.

  • b/bb                      Bb or silent
  • c                            Kk or Ss when the C is followed by an e, i or y.
  • ck                         Kk
  • cks                       Xx/KS
  • ch                         CH, SH for French origin words, or Kk
  • d/ed                      Dd or Tt for the suffix -ed
  • f/ff                         Ff or rarely Vv (of)
  • g/gg                      Gg or Jj when the Gg is followed by an e,i or y
  • gh                         Gg, Ff or silent
  • gn                         Nn
  • gu                         Gg (guess)
  • h                           Hh, or silent as in hour
  • J                             Jj
  • k                           Kk
  • kn                         Nn
  • ks/kes                   Xx/KS
  • l/ll                          Ll, rarely Rr (colonel) or silent when followed by f, m, k, or d. (calf, calm, yolk, could)
  • le/el                       Ll
  • m/mm                   Mm or rarely silent.
  • mn/mb                  Mm
  • n/nn                      Nn or silent
  • ng/n                      NG also when a N is followed by a K it has the NG sound
  • p/pp                      Pp
  • ph                         Ff or Pp
  • pn                         Nn
  • ps                         Ss
  • pt                          Tt or at the end of a syllable it can have a Pp/Tt blend.
  • qu                         Qu/KW
  • r/rh                       Rr if at the beginning of a syllable or word
  • s/ss                      Ss, Zz, _S_(ZH), or SH (sugar)
  • si                          _S_ (ZH) or SH
  • sh                         SH
  • t/tt                         Tt
  • ti                          SH, or Tt
  • th                         TH as in thumb, TH as in this, or Tt (thyme)
  • v                           Vv
  • w                          Ww or silent vowel helper (know)
  • wh                        WH, or rarely Hh (who)
  • wr                         Rr when at the beginning of a syllable
  • x                           Xx/KS at the end of a word/syllable, or Zz at the beginning of a word
  • y                           Yy when it begins a word/syllable otherwise it is a vowel (Look at Vowels)
  • z                           Zz or rarely _S_ (ZH) (seizure)

List of Vowel Sound for Each Spelling

  • a                  Long A, UH, AW (all), or short Aa when followed by a consonant in the syllable
  • a_e/ai          Long A, Short Ee (said), short Ii (mountain), Long I (aisle) or Short Aa (plaid, have)
  • air                AIR
  • ar                 AR OR when following a “W” (warm), or ER when it is a suffix (dollar)
  • are               AIR or AR when all alone (are)
  • au                Long A, AW, or Short A (laugh)
  • aw               AW
  • ay                Long A or Long I (kayak)
  • e                  Long E, UH or Short Ee when followed by a consonant in the syllable
  • ea                Long E, Long A (break), or Short Ee (head)
  • ear               EAR or AIR (bear)
  • ee/e_e         Long E or rarely Long A (matinee)
  • ei                 Long A, Long E when following a “C”, or rarely Long I
  • eo                Rare Long E (people) or Long O
  • et                 Short Ee, or Long A (ballet)
  • ew               Long OO or Long U
  • ey                Long E, Long I (geyser, eye) or Long A (they)
  • i                   Long I, UH, Short Ii when followed by a consonant in the syllable, Long E (pizza)
  • ia                 Long I (diamond)
  • ie                 Long I if it ends the first syllable, Long E, or rarely Long A (lingerie)
  • i_e               Long I, Long E (machine), or Short Ii (give)
  • igh               Long I
  • is                 Long I (island), or Long E (debris)
  • ir                  ER or Long I (fire)
  • o                  Long O, UH, Short Oo when followed by a consonant, short I (women), Long OO (to), Short OO when following a “W” (wolf), or UH (son)
  • oa                Long O
  • oe                Long O or Long OO (canoe)
  • o_e              Long O, UH (some), Short Oo (gone), or Long OO (move)
  • oi                 OY
  • oo                Long OO (boo), or Short OO (book)
  • or                 OR, or ER when it follows a “W” (work) or at the end (doctor)
  • ore/oar/oor  OR
  • ou                OW, UH (double), AW (cough), OR (four), Long OO (soup), or Short OO (could)
  • ow                Long O, or OW
  • oy                 OY
  • u                   Long U, Short Uu/UH when followed by a consonant in the syllable, Long OO (tuna), or Short OO (put)
  • ue                 Long U or Long OO
  • u_e               Long U, Long OO (tube) or UH (judge)
  • ui                  Long OO
  • ur                  ER
  • y                   Long E multi-syllable words, Long I first syllable, or Short I when followed by consonant

More phonics materials available through our website.    http://www.phonicsbyspelling.com/


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  1. […] via Spellings and Their Sounds — Phonics By Spelling’s Blog […]


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